Aslan, C., J. L. Bronstein, H. S. Rogers, K. Gedan, J. Brodie, T. M. Palmer and T. P. Young. 2016. Leveraging nature’s backup plans to incorporate interspecific interactions and resilience into restoration. Restoration Ecology 24:434-440. PDF


Pringle, R. M., K. M. Prior, T. M. Palmer, T. P. Young, and J. R. Goheen. 2016. Large herbivores promote habitat specialization and beta diversity of African savanna trees. Ecology, in press.


Ceballos, G, P. R. Ehrlich, A. Barnosky, A. García, R. M. Pringle, and T. M. Palmer. 2015. No excuse for complacency: we are entering the sixth mass extinction. Science Advances 1:e1400253 PDF


Fraser, L. H., J. Pither, A. Schmidt, A. Jentsch, M. Sternberg, M. Zobel, D. Askarizadeh, S. Bartha, C. Beierkuhnlein, J. Bennett, A. Bittel, B. Boldgiv, I. Boldrin, E. Bork, L. Brown, M. Cabido, J. Cahill, C. N. Carlyle, G. Campetella, S. Chelli, O. Cohen, A. M. Csergo, S. Díaz, L. Enrico, D. Ensing, A. Fidelis, B. Foster, H. Garris, J. R. Goheen, H. A. L. Henry, S. Hoffmann, M. Hohn, M. Jouri, J. Klironomos, K. Koorem, A. Lkhagva, R. L. Lodge, R. Long, P. Manning, R. Mitchell, M. Moora, S. C. Müller, C. Nabinger, K. Naseri, G. E. Overbeck, T. M. Palmer, S. Parsons, M. Pesek, V. D. Pillar, R. M. Pringle, K. Roccaforte, Z. Shang, R. Stahlmann, G. Stotz, S. Sugiyama, S. Szentes, D. Thompson, R. Tungalag, S. Undrakhbold, M. van Rooyen, C. Wellstein, J. B. Wilson, T. Zupo. Unimodal relationship between grassland richness and biomass supported by worldwide experimental evidence. 2015. Science 349:302-305. PDF


Pringle, R. M., D. M. Kimuyu, R. L. Sensenig, T. M. Palmer, C. Riginos, K. E. Veblen and T. P. Young. 2015. Synergistic indirect effects of fire and elephants on arboreal fauna. Journal of Animal Ecology in press. 


Ford, A. T., J. R. Goheen, T. O. Otieno, L. Bidner, L. A. Isbell, T. M. Palmer, D. Ward, R. Woodroffe and R. M. Pringle. 2014. Large carnivores make savanna tree communities less thorny. Science 346:346-349. PDF


Riginos, C., M. A. Karande, D. I. Rubenstein, and T. M. Palmer. 2015. Disruption of a protective ant-plant mutualism by an invasive ant increases elephant damage to savanna trees. Ecology 96:654-661. PDF


Ford, A. T., J. R. Goheen, D. J. Augustine, M. F. Kinnaird, T. G. O’Brien, T. M. Palmer, R. M. Pringle, and R. Woodroffe. 2015. Recovery of African wild dogs suppresses prey but does not trigger a trophic cascade. Ecology in press.


Tarnita, C. E., T. M. Palmer and R. M. Pringle. 2014. Colonization and competition dynamics can explain incomplete sterilization parasitism in ant-plant symbioses. Ecology Letters 17:1290-1298. PDF


Young, H. S., D. J. McCauley, R. Dirzo, J. R. Goheen, B. Agwanda, C. Brook, A. W. Ferguson, F. Keesing, S. N. Kinyua, M. M. McDonough, T. M. Palmer, R. M. Pringle, D. R. Salkeld, T. P. Young and K. M. Helgen. 2014. Context-dependent effects of large wildlife declines on small mammal communities in central Kenya. Ecological Applications, in press.


Pringle, R. M., J. R. Goheen, T. M. Palmer, G. K. Charles, E. DeFranco, R. Hohbein, A. T. Ford, B. Torto and C. E. Tarnita. 2014. Herbivory as a complex interaction: Direct, indirect, and net effects of browsers on Solanum campylacanthum in an African savanna. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281: 20132647 PDF


Louthan, A. M., D. F. Doak, J. R. Goheen, T. M. Palmer and R. M. Pringle. 2014. Mechanisms of plant–plant interactions: concealment from herbivores is more important than abiotic-stress mediation in an African savannah. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281: PDF


Ngatia, L., R. K. Ramesh, P. K. R. Nair, R. M. Pringle, T. M. Palmer and B. Turner. 2014. Seasonal patterns in decomposition and nutrient release from East African savanna grasses grown under contrasting nutrient conditions. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 188:12-19. PDF


Seifert, M. G. and T. M. Palmer. Spine form in an African acacia determines defensive efficacy against browsers of different sizes and feeding strategies. Journal of Ecology, in press.


Kartzinel, T. R., J. R. Goheen, G. K. Charles, E. DeFranco, J. E. Maclean, T. Otieno, T. M. Palmer and R. M. Pringle. 2014. Context-dependent responses of plants and small mammals to the exclusion of large herbivores in an African savanna: the first five years of the UHURU experiment. Ecology 95:787  Available here


Rudolph, K. E. and T. M. Palmer. 2013. Carbohydrates as fuel for defense, foraging and colony growth – a field test with the tropical plant-ant Crematogaster nigriceps in Laikipia, Kenya. Biotropica 45:620-627. PDF


Young, H. S., D. J. McCauley, K. M. Helgen, E. Otarola-Castillo, J. R. Goheen, T. M. Palmer, R. M. Pringle, T. P. Young and R. Dirzo. 2013. Effects of mammalian herbivore declines on plant communities: Observations and experiments in an African savanna. Journal of Ecology 101:1030-1041. PDF


Rubin, B. E., R. M. Anderson, D. Kennedy, T. M. Palmer, M. L. Stanton, and I. R. Lovette. Polygyny in the nest-site limited acacia-ant Crematogaster mimosae. 2013. Insectes Sociaux DOI 10.1007/s00040-013-0287-5


Poulsen, J. R., C. J. Clark and T. M. Palmer. 2013. Ecological erosion of an Afrotropical forest and potential consequences for tree recruitment and forest biomass. Biological Conservation 163:122-130. PDF


Louthan, A. M., D. F. Doak, J. R. Goheen, T. M. Palmer and R. M. Pringle. 2013. Climatic stress mediates the impacts of herbivory on plant population structure and components of individual fitness. Journal of Ecology 101:1074-1083. PDF


Palmer, T. M., M. L. Stanton, T. P. Young, J. S. Lemboi, J. R. Goheen, and R. M. Pringle. 2013. A role for indirect facilitation in supporting diversity in a guild of African acacia ants. Ecology 94:1531-1539. PDF


Palmer, T. M. and A. K. Brody. 2013. Enough is enough: the effects of symbiotic ant abundance on herbivory, growth and reproduction in an African acacia. Ecology 94:683-691. PDF


Goheen, J. R., T. M. Palmer, G. K. Charles, K. M. Helgen, S. N. Kinyua, J. E. Maclean, H. S. Young, R. M. Pringle. In press. Piecewise disassembly of a large-herbivore community across a rainfall gradient: the UHURU experiment. PLoS One 8:e55192. PDF


Siefert, A. W., S. G. Kiama, M. G. Siefert, J.R. Goheen, T. M. Palmer and M. Maden. 2012. Skin shedding and tissue regeneration in African spiny mice (Acomys). Nature 489:561-565. PDF


E. Toby Kiers, M. Duhamel, Y. Beesetty, J. A. Mensah, O. Franken, E. Verbruggen, C. Fellbaum, G. A. Kowalchuk, M. M. Hart, A. Bago, T. M. Palmer, S. A. West, P. Vandenkoornhuyse, J. Jansa and H. Bücking. 2011. Reciprocal rewards stabilize cooperation in the mycorrhizal symbiosis. Science 333:880-882. PDF


Stanton, M. L. and T. M. Palmer. 2010. The high cost of mutualism: effects of four species of East African ant symbionts on their myrmecophyte host tree. Ecology 92:1073-1082. PDF


Kiers, E. T., T. M. Palmer, A. R. Ives, J. Bruno, and J. L. Bronstein. 2010. Mutualisms in a changing world: an evolutionary perspective. Ecology Letters 13:1459-1474. PDF


Palmer, T. M., D. F. Doak, M. L. Stanton, T. P. Young, J. L. Bronstein, E. T. Kiers, J. R. Goheen and R. M. Pringle. 2010. Synergy of multiple partners, including freeloaders, increases fitness in a multi-species mutualism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:17234-17239. PDF


Goheen, J. R. and T. M. Palmer*. 2010. Defensive plant-ants stabilize megaherbivore-driven landscape change in an African savanna. Current Biology 20:1768-1772. (*authors contributed equally) PDF


Pringle, R. M., D. F. Doak, A. K. Brody, R. Joque and T. M. Palmer. 2010. Spatial pattern enhances ecosystem function. PLoS Biology 8:1000377. PDF


Fox-Dobbs, K., D. F. Doak, A. K. Brody and T. M. Palmer. 2010. Termites create spatial structure and govern ecosystem function by affecting nitrogen fixation in an East African savanna. Ecology 91:1296-1307. PDF


Kuria, S. K., M. H. Villet, T. M. Palmer and M. L. Stanton. 2010. A comparison of two sampling methods for surveying herbivore impacts on beetle communities in the canopy of Acacia drepanolobium. African Journal of Ecology 18:87-98. PDF


Goheen, J. R., T. M. Palmer, F. Keesing, C. Riginos and T. P. Young. 2010. Large herbivores facilitate savanna tree establishment via diverse and indirect pathways. Journal of Animal Ecology 79:372-382. PDF


Brody, A. K., T. M. Palmer, K. Fox-Dobbs and D.F. Doak. 2010. Termites, vertebrate herbivores and the fruiting success of Acacia drepanolobium. Ecology 91:399-407. PDF


Palmer, T. M., M. L. Stanton, T. P. Young, J. R. Goheen, R. M. Pringle and R. Karban. 2008. Putting ant-acacia mutualisms to the fire. Science 319:1759-1761. PDF


Palmer, T. M., M. L. Stanton, T. P. Young, J. R. Goheen, R. M. Pringle and R. Karban. 2008. Breakdown of an ant-plant mutualism follows the loss of large herbivores from an African savanna. Science 319:192-195. PDF


Palmer, T. M. and A. K. Brody. 2007. Mutualism as reciprocal exploitation: African plant-ants defend foliar but not reproductive structures. Ecology 88:3004-3011. PDF


Goheen, J. R., T. P. Young, F. Keesing and T. M. Palmer. 2007. Consequences of herbivory by large mammals to reproductive fitness of a savanna tree. Journal of Ecology 95:129-138. PDF


Wood, W. F., T. M. Palmer and M. L. Stanton. 2006. Volatiles in the mandibular gland of Tetraponera penzigi: a plant ant of the whistling thorn acacia. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 34:536-538. PDF


Young, T. P., T. M. Palmer and M. E. Gadd. 2005. Competition and compensation among cattle, zebras, and elephants in a semi-arid range land in Laikipia, Kenya. Biological Conservation 122:351-359. PDF


Stanton, M. L., T. M. Palmer and T. P. Young. 2005. Ecological barriers to early colony establishment in three coexisting acacia-ant species in Kenya. Insectes Sociaux 52: 393-401. PDF


O’Reilly, L. O., D. Ogada, T. M. Palmer and F. Keesing. 2006. Effects of fire on bird diversity and abundance in an East African savanna. African Journal of Ecology 44:165-170. PDF


Palmer, T. M. 2004. Wars of attrition: colony size determines competitive outcomes in a guild of African acacia-ants. Animal Behaviour 68: 993-1004. PDF 


Huntzinger, P. M., R. Karban, T. P. Young, and T. M. Palmer. 2004. Relaxation of induced indirect defenses of acacias following removal of mammalian herbivores. Ecology 85:609-614. PDF


Palmer, T. M. 2003.  Spatial habitat heterogeneity influences competition and coexistence in an African acacia ant guild. Ecology 84:2843-2855. PDF


Palmer, T. M., M. L. Stanton, and T. P. Young. 2003. Competition and coexistence: exploring mechanisms that restrict and maintain diversity within mutualist guilds. American Naturalist 162: S63-79. PDF


Palmer, T. M., T. P. Young and M. L. Stanton. 2002. Burning bridges: Priority effects and the persistence of a competitively subordinate acacia-ant in Laikipia, Kenya. Oecologia 133:372-379. PDF


Collinge, S.K. and T. M. Palmer. 2002. The influences of patch shape and boundary contrast on insect response to fragmentation in California grasslands. Landscape Ecology 17:647-656. PDF


Stanton, M. L., T. M. Palmer and T. P. Young. 2002. Competition-colonization trade-offs in a guild of African Acacia-ants. Ecological Monographs 72:347-363. PDF


Wood, W. F., T. M. Palmer and M. L. Stanton. 2002. A comparison of volatiles in mandibular glands from three Crematogaster ant symbionts of the whistling thorn acacia. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 30:217-222. PDF


Gadd, M. E., T. P. Young, and T. M. Palmer. 2001. Effects of simulated shoot and leaf herbivory on vegetative growth and plant defense in Acacia drepanolobium. Oikos 92:515-521. PDF


Palmer, T. M., T. P. Young, M. L. Stanton and E. Wenk. 2000. Short-term dynamics of an acacia-ant community in Laikipia, Kenya. Oecologia 123:425-435. PDF


Stanton, M. L., T. M. Palmer, T. P. Young, A. Evans, and M. L. Turner. 1999. Sterilization and canopy modification of a swollen thorn acacia tree by a plant-ant. Nature 401:578-581. PDF


Young, T. P., B. D. Okello, D. Kinyua and T. M. Palmer. 1998. KLEE: a long-term multi-species herbivore exclusion experiment in Laikipia, Kenya. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 14:94-102. PDF


Ives, A.R., J. Foufopoulos, E. Klopfer, J. Klug and T. M. Palmer. 1995. Bottle or big-scale experiments: how do we study ecology? Ecology: 77(3):681-685. PDF


Palmer, T. M. 1995. The influence of spatial heterogeneity on the behavior and growth of two herbivorous stream insects. Oecologia: 104:476-486. PDF


Cooper, S. M. and T. M. Palmer. 1994. Observations on the dietary choice of free-ranging juvenile ostriches. Ostrich 65(3-4):251-255. PDF


Palmer, T. M. and M. Zimmerman. 1994. Pollen competition and sporophyte fitness in Brassica campestris:  Does intense pollen competition result in individuals with better pollen? Oikos 69:80-86. PDF

 

publications

*Links to PDFs can be found at the end of each citation*